Space weather

Solar wind speed Solar wind magnetic fields Noon 10.7cm radio flux
Bt Bz

Update

Update

Update
CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: 06.12.2021 13:38 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 3174
Begin Time: 2021 Dec 02 1130 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 1289 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: 05.12.2021 15:12 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 3173
Begin Time: 2021 Dec 02 1130 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 1221 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: 04.12.2021 13:53 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 3172
Begin Time: 2021 Dec 02 1130 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 4873 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 03.12.2021 19:33 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2021 Dec 03 1933 UTC
Valid To: 2021 Dec 04 0600 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: 03.12.2021 4:59 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 3171
Begin Time: 2021 Dec 02 1130 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 2920 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: 02.12.2021 11:37 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Threshold Reached: 2021 Dec 02 1130 UTC
Station: GOES16


Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 02.12.2021 7:14 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2021 Dec 02 0715 UTC
Valid To: 2021 Dec 02 1200 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 01.12.2021 22:41 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2021 Dec 01 2240 UTC
Valid To: 2021 Dec 02 0300 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 01.12.2021 5:39 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 3978
Valid From: 2021 Nov 30 2141 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2021 Dec 01 1200 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Issued: 30.11.2021 22:39 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Threshold Reached: 2021 Nov 30 2238 UTC
Synoptic Period: 2100-2400 UTC

Active Warning: Yes
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Issued: 30.11.2021 21:50 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Valid From: 2021 Nov 30 2150 UTC
Valid To: 2021 Dec 01 0300 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Issued: 30.11.2021 21:44 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Threshold Reached: 2021 Nov 30 2141 UTC
Synoptic Period: 2100-2400 UTC

Active Warning: Yes

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 30.11.2021 21:41 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2021 Nov 30 2141 UTC
Valid To: 2021 Dec 01 0600 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 29.11.2021 2:56 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 3976
Valid From: 2021 Nov 28 2225 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2021 Nov 29 0900 UTC
Warning Condition: persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Issued: 29.11.2021 2:56 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Threshold Reached: 2021 Nov 29 0247 UTC
Synoptic Period: 0000-0300 UTC

Active Warning: Yes

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 28.11.2021 22:24 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2021 Nov 28 2225 UTC
Valid To: 2021 Nov 29 0300 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 28.11.2021 8:52 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 3974
Valid From: 2021 Nov 27 2300 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2021 Nov 28 1500 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 28.11.2021 2:37 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 3973
Valid From: 2021 Nov 27 2300 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2021 Nov 28 0900 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 27.11.2021 23:01 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2021 Nov 27 2300 UTC
Valid To: 2021 Nov 28 0300 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: 26.11.2021 13:54 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Threshold Reached: 2021 Nov 26 1310 UTC
Station: GOES16


Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: 24.11.2021 13:16 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 3168
Begin Time: 2021 Nov 23 1650 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 1094 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: 23.11.2021 16:51 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Threshold Reached: 2021 Nov 23 1650 UTC
Station: GOES


Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 22.11.2021 5:35 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 3971
Valid From: 2021 Nov 22 0130 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2021 Nov 22 1200 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 22.11.2021 1:30 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2021 Nov 22 0130 UTC
Valid To: 2021 Nov 22 0600 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 20.11.2021 17:28 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2021 Nov 20 1727 UTC
Valid To: 2021 Nov 21 0900 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 17.11.2021 11:11 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2021 Nov 17 1111 UTC
Valid To: 2021 Nov 17 1500 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Issued: 17.11.2021 2:47 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Threshold Reached: 2021 Nov 17 0245 UTC
Synoptic Period: 0000-0300 UTC

Active Warning: Yes

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 17.11.2021 2:36 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2021 Nov 17 0236 UTC
Valid To: 2021 Nov 17 0900 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 16.11.2021 5:50 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 3966
Valid From: 2021 Nov 15 2059 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2021 Nov 16 1200 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Issued: 15.11.2021 21:04 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Threshold Reached: 2021 Nov 15 2100 UTC
Synoptic Period: 2100-2400 UTC

Active Warning: Yes

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 15.11.2021 21:02 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2021 Nov 15 2059 UTC
Valid To: 2021 Nov 16 0600 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: 15.11.2021 14:13 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 3166
Begin Time: 2021 Nov 13 2025 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 1600 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: 14.11.2021 12:57 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 3165
Begin Time: 2021 Nov 13 2025 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 1185 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: 13.11.2021 20:50 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Threshold Reached: 2021 Nov 13 2025 UTC
Station: GOES-16


Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 10.11.2021 2:42 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2021 Nov 10 0242 UTC
Valid To: 2021 Nov 10 0900 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: 09.11.2021 11:11 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 3163
Begin Time: 2021 Nov 05 1425 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 3320 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: 08.11.2021 8:02 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 3162
Begin Time: 2021 Nov 05 1425 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 1939 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

Table

Date Radio flux 10.7 cm SESC Sunspot number Sunspot area 10E-6 New regions GOES15 X-ray Bkgd flux Flares
X-ray Optical
C M X S 1 2 3
Nov 7, 2021 88 28 240 0 * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Nov 8, 2021 88 41 310 1 * 2 0 0 2 0 0 0
Nov 9, 2021 92 40 410 0 * 0 1 0 1 0 0 0
Nov 10, 2021 88 37 410 0 * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Nov 11, 2021 85 39 300 0 * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Nov 12, 2021 83 39 220 0 * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Nov 13, 2021 81 24 110 0 * 1 0 0 1 0 0 0
Nov 14, 2021 78 23 170 1 * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Nov 15, 2021 79 23 130 0 * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Nov 16, 2021 80 35 330 1 * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Nov 17, 2021 79 33 270 0 * 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
Nov 18, 2021 82 22 40 0 * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Nov 19, 2021 79 22 40 0 * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Nov 20, 2021 80 22 40 0 * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Nov 21, 2021 79 22 20 0 * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Nov 22, 2021 78 22 30 0 * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Nov 23, 2021 80 39 80 1 * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Nov 24, 2021 83 39 50 0 * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Nov 25, 2021 94 20 90 0 * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Nov 26, 2021 92 52 190 2 * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Nov 27, 2021 92 53 320 0 * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Nov 28, 2021 92 53 270 1 * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Nov 29, 2021 90 47 360 0 * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Nov 30, 2021 90 61 390 2 * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Dec 1, 2021 86 37 350 0 * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Dec 2, 2021 87 45 200 0 * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Dec 3, 2021 85 29 140 0 * 0 0 0 2 0 0 0
Dec 4, 2021 88 35 40 1 * 11 0 0 2 0 0 0
Dec 5, 2021 83 36 50 0 * 5 1 0 0 0 0 0
Dec 6, 2021 80 14 10 0 * 2 0 0 1 0 0 0
Average/Total 85 34 187 10 21 2 0 10 0 0 0

Summary graph

Flares

Solar wind

Solar Wind

The solar wind is a stream of plasma released from the upper atmosphere of the Sun. It consists of mostly electrons, protons and alpha particles with energies usually between 1.5 and 10 keV. The stream of particles varies in density, temperature, and speed over time and over solar longitude. These particles can escape the Sun's gravity because of their high energy, from the high temperature of the corona and magnetic, electrical and electromagnetic phenomena in it.

The solar wind is divided into two components, respectively termed the slow solar wind and the fast solar wind. The slow solar wind has a velocity of about 400 km/s, a temperature of 1.4–1.6×10e6 K and a composition that is a close match to the corona. By contrast, the fast solar wind has a typical velocity of 750 km/s, a temperature of 8×10e5 K and it nearly matches the composition of the Sun's photosphere. The slow solar wind is twice as dense and more variable in intensity than the fast solar wind. The slow wind also has a more complex structure, with turbulent regions and large-scale structures.

Solar radio flux at 10.7 cm

Solar radio flux at 10.7 cm

The solar radio flux at 10.7 cm (2800 MHz) is an excellent indicator of solar activity. Often called the F10.7 index, it is one of the longest running records of solar activity. The F10.7 radio emissions originates high in the chromosphere and low in the corona of the solar atmosphere. The F10.7 correlates well with the sunspot number as well as a number of UltraViolet (UV) and visible solar irradiance records. Reported in “solar flux units”, (s.f.u.), the F10.7 can vary from below 50 s.f.u., to above 300 s.f.u., over the course of a solar cycle.

Flares

Flares

A solar flare is a sudden flash of brightness observed over the Sun's surface or the solar limb, which is interpreted as a large energy release of up to 6 × 10e25 joules of energy. They are often, but not always, followed by a colossal coronal mass ejection. The flare ejects clouds of electrons, ions, and atoms through the corona of the sun into space. These clouds typically reach Earth a day or two after the event.

Solar flares affect all layers of the solar atmosphere (photosphere, chromosphere, and corona), when the plasma medium is heated to tens of millions of kelvin, while the electrons, protons, and heavier ions are accelerated to near the speed of light. They produce radiation across the electromagnetic spectrum at all wavelengths, from radio waves to gamma rays, although most of the energy is spread over frequencies outside the visual range and for this reason the majority of the flares are not visible to the naked eye and must be observed with special instruments. Flares occur in active regions around sunspots, where intense magnetic fields penetrate the photosphere to link the corona to the solar interior. Flares are powered by the sudden (timescales of minutes to tens of minutes) release of magnetic energy stored in the corona. The same energy releases may produce coronal mass ejections (CME), although the relation between CMEs and flares is still not well established.

The frequency of occurrence of solar flares varies, from several per day when the Sun is particularly "active" to less than one every week when the Sun is "quiet", following the 11-year cycle (the solar cycle). Large flares are less frequent than smaller ones.

Classification

Solar flares are classified as A, B, C, M or X according to the peak flux (in watts per square metre, W/m2) of 100 to 800 picometre X-rays near Earth, as measured on the GOES spacecraft.

Classification Peak Flux Range at 100-800 picometer
W/m2
A < 10e-7
B 10e-7 to 10e-6
C 10e-6 to 10e-5
M 10e-5 to 10e-4
X 10e-4 to 10e-3
Z > 10e-3

An earlier flare classification is based on Hα spectral observations. The scheme uses both the intensity and emitting surface. The classification in intensity is qualitative, referring to the flares as: (f)aint, (n)ormal or (b)rilliant. The emitting surface is measured in terms of millionths of the hemisphere and is described below. (The total hemisphere area AH = 6.2 × 1012 km2.)

Classification Corrected area
(millionths of hemisphere)
S < 100
1 100 - 250
2 250 - 600
3 600 - 1200
4 > 1200

Sunspot number

Sunspots

Sunspots are temporary phenomena on the photosphere of the Sun that appear visibly as dark spots compared to surrounding regions. They correspond to concentrations of magnetic field that inhibit convection and result in reduced surface temperature compared to the surrounding photosphere. Sunspots usually appear in pairs, with pair members of opposite magnetic polarity. The number of sunspots varies according to the approximately 11-year solar cycle.

Sunspot populations quickly rise and more slowly fall on an irregular cycle of 11 years, although significant variations in the number of sunspots attending the 11-year period are known over longer spans of time. For example, from 1900 to the 1960s, the solar maxima trend of sunspot count has been upward; from the 1960s to the present, it has diminished somewhat. Over the last decades the Sun has had a markedly high average level of sunspot activity; it was last similarly active over 8,000 years ago.

The number of sunspots correlates with the intensity of solar radiation over the period since 1979, when satellite measurements of absolute radiative flux became available. Since sunspots are darker than the surrounding photosphere it might be expected that more sunspots would lead to less solar radiation and a decreased solar constant. However, the surrounding margins of sunspots are brighter than the average, and so are hotter; overall, more sunspots increase the Sun's solar constant or brightness. The variation caused by the sunspot cycle to solar output is relatively small, on the order of 0.1% of the solar constant (a peak-to-trough range of 1.3 W/m2 compared to 1366 W/m2 for the average solar constant).

K-indices



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3 1 1 1 1 1 1



Data


Estimated Planetary

Estimated Planetary

Date A K-indices (UTC)
0h 3h 6h 9h 12h 15h 18h 21h
Nov 8, 2021 5 0 0 0 1 1 1 2 3
Nov 9, 2021 7 2 2 2 1 1 1 2 3
Nov 10, 2021 8 3 2 3 1 1 1 2 1
Nov 11, 2021 4 1 0 1 1 2 1 1 1
Nov 12, 2021 4 1 2 1 1 1 0 0 1
Nov 13, 2021 3 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1
Nov 14, 2021 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1
Nov 15, 2021 9 0 1 1 1 1 2 4 4
Nov 16, 2021 13 4 4 3 2 2 2 2 2
Nov 17, 2021 12 4 2 3 3 2 2 2 3
Nov 18, 2021 5 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1
Nov 19, 2021 5 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 2
Nov 20, 2021 10 2 1 2 2 2 3 2 3
Nov 21, 2021 12 3 2 2 3 3 3 2 3
Nov 22, 2021 9 3 3 0 1 1 2 2 2
Nov 23, 2021 9 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 2
Nov 24, 2021 5 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1
Nov 25, 2021 5 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1
Nov 26, 2021 4 1 1 1 1 1 2 0 1
Nov 27, 2021 5 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 3
Nov 28, 2021 9 3 3 2 2 1 1 2 3
Nov 29, 2021 9 4 4 1 1 1 1 2 1
Nov 30, 2021 11 1 0 1 0 1 1 2 5
Dec 1, 2021 18 4 4 3 2 3 3 3 4
Dec 2, 2021 10 2 2 3 1 2 3 2 2
Dec 3, 2021 8 1 1 1 2 3 3 3 2
Dec 4, 2021 9 3 3 3 1 1 1 2 1
Dec 5, 2021 9 2 2 1 1 1 3 3 3
Dec 6, 2021 7 2 1 2 1 2 3 2 1
Dec 7, 2021 5 3 1 1 1 1 1 1

Middle Latitude

Date A K-indices
Nov 8, 2021 3 0 0 0 0 2 1 2 2
Nov 9, 2021 6 2 2 2 0 1 2 2 2
Nov 10, 2021 5 2 2 2 1 2 1 1 1
Nov 11, 2021 3 0 0 0 1 2 2 1 0
Nov 12, 2021 3 2 2 1 0 1 1 1 0
Nov 13, 2021 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
Nov 14, 2021 2 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1
Nov 15, 2021 6 0 0 0 0 2 2 3 3
Nov 16, 2021 11 4 3 2 2 1 2 2 3
Nov 17, 2021 9 3 2 3 3 1 2 1 2
Nov 18, 2021 3 1 2 1 1 1 1 0 1
Nov 19, 2021 3 1 0 1 0 2 1 1 1
Nov 20, 2021 7 1 1 2 2 2 3 2 2
Nov 21, 2021 8 3 2 1 2 2 2 2 2
Nov 22, 2021 7 3 3 0 1 1 2 2 1
Nov 23, 2021 7 1 2 1 3 1 2 2 2
Nov 24, 2021 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0
Nov 25, 2021 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0
Nov 26, 2021 3 0 1 1 0 1 2 1 1
Nov 27, 2021 3 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 3
Nov 28, 2021 7 2 3 2 1 1 1 2 2
Nov 29, 2021 6 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 0
Nov 30, 2021 8 0 0 1 0 0 2 2 5
Dec 1, 2021 14 4 3 3 2 2 3 2 3
Dec 2, 2021 7 2 1 3 1 2 2 2 2
Dec 3, 2021 4 0 0 1 2 2 2 2 1
Dec 4, 2021 7 3 2 3 1 2 1 1 1
Dec 5, 2021 6 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 2
Dec 6, 2021 6 1 0 2 2 2 3 2 1
Dec 7, 2021 2 1 0 0 1 2 1

High Latitude

Date A K-indices
Nov 8, 2021 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 2
Nov 9, 2021 5 1 2 2 2 1 0 1 2
Nov 10, 2021 9 2 1 4 3 3 1 0 0
Nov 11, 2021 10 0 0 1 3 5 2 1 0
Nov 12, 2021 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Nov 13, 2021 0 0 0 1 0 0
Nov 14, 2021 1 0 0 2 1 0 0 0
Nov 15, 2021 6 0 0 0 0 3 2 2 3
Nov 16, 2021 18 2 4 2 5 4 3 2 1
Nov 17, 2021 18 2 2 3 6 3 2 2 1
Nov 18, 2021 2 1 1 1 2 0 0 0 0
Nov 19, 2021 2 0 0 1 0 2 1 0 1
Nov 20, 2021 14 2 1 2 4 4 4 2 2
Nov 21, 2021 18 3 3 3 5 4 3 2 1
Nov 22, 2021 5 2 2 0 1 2 2 2 1
Nov 23, 2021 20 2 3 1 6 3 4 2 1
Nov 24, 2021 4 2 1 1 3 1 0 0 0
Nov 25, 2021 3 0 1 2 2 1 1 0 0
Nov 26, 2021 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Nov 27, 2021 2 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 2
Nov 28, 2021 3 2 1 0 2 2 0 0 1
Nov 29, 2021 11 2 4 1 4 3 1 1 0
Nov 30, 2021 4 0 0 2 1 0 0 2 3
Dec 1, 2021 48 4 5 6 6 6 4 3 4
Dec 2, 2021 13 1 1 3 3 4 4 2 2
Dec 3, 2021 21 0 0 1 5 5 5 3 1
Dec 4, 2021 5 2 2 3 2 0 2 0 0
Dec 5, 2021 10 0 1 1 4 3 2 3 2
Dec 6, 2021 10 1 0 2 3 3 4 2 1
Dec 7, 2021 0 1 0 0 1 1 0

About

The K-index quantifies disturbances in the horizontal component of earth's magnetic field with an integer in the range 0–9 with 1 being calm and 5 or more indicating a geomagnetic storm. It is derived from the maximum fluctuations of horizontal components observed on a magnetometer during a three-hour interval. The label K comes from the German word Kennziffer meaning “characteristic digit”. The K-index was introduced by Julius Bartels in 1938.

The Estimated 3-hour Planetary Kp-index is derived at the NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center using data from the following ground-based magnetometers:

  • Sitka, Alaska
  • Meanook, Canada
  • Ottawa, Canada
  • Fredericksburg, Virginia
  • Hartland, UK
  • Wingst, Germany
  • Niemegk, Germany
  • Canberra, Australia

These data are made available thanks to the cooperative efforts between SWPC and data providers around the world, which currently includes the U.S. Geological Survey, Natural Resources Canada (NRCAN), the British Geological Survey, the German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ), and Geoscience Australia. Important magnetometer observations are also contributed by the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris and the Korean Space Weather Center K-index Watches are issued when the highest predicted NOAA estimated Kp-indices for a day are K = 5, 6, 7, or >= 8 and is reported in terms of the NOAA G scale. K-index Warnings are issued when NOAA estimated Kp-indices of 4, 5, 6, and 7 or greater are expected. K-index Alerts are issued when the NOAA estimated Kp-indices reach 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, or 9.


More info
Data source: NOAA, Wikipedia

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